Posted by: Brad Nixon | December 4, 2010

On the Drum Barracks Beat

According to a listing in Wikipedia, there were still a handful of veterans of the American Civil War (1861-1865) alive when I was born.

With all who remember that monumental conflict now gone, the war is still present in the form of written records, artifacts, weapons and materiel, forts, fortresses, encampments and buildings of endless variety. For that single American conflict 150 years ago, there is a vast extant inventory of structures, in part because the war itself consumed the entire nation and many buildings and sites have been preserved as monuments and testimonials to a conflict that killed two-thirds of a million soldiers in four years: a level of productivity that should be highly admired by todays warmakers (although it was soon eclipsed by WWI, a highly productive war, which killed 16 million people, including 20,000 English dead in a single day at the battle of the Somme).

It’s amazing to consider the vast scale of armament and construction associated with the Civil War. To pick just a few random examples, I have been to Fort Knox in Maine, a massive example in granite of the classic pentagonal style of military fortresses of that era. It was begun as a coastal defense against the British, but was garrisoned by Maine volunteers during the Civil War.

More than a thousand miles to the south, I’ve also visited Fort Clinch, on Amelia Island, Florida, another 5-sided fortress, this one built of earth and brick guarding another strategically important waterway.

Fort Clinch Brad Nixon 1989 (640x480)

Ft. Clinch was begun for a previous conflict, the Seminole War, but became a hotly contested strategic point and construction of the fort was accelerated in response to the onset of the war.

On the Far Coast

Ft. Stevens with later concrete ramparts

The Counselor and I also visited Fort Stevens, three thousand miles to the northwest, at the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon, seaward from Astoria, another earthwork fort protecting a key waterway.

In between, across the width of the continent, are hundreds, probably thousands of forts, encampments, battlefields and other Civil War sites. One couldn’t catalogue them in a lifetime, much less visit them. I don’t go out of my way to search out old forts, but they’re everywhere, and the curious traveler just has to stop. (Here’s a question to ponder: is there a state other than Alaska or Hawaii that does not have a structure — a depot, artillery emplacement, fort — built by one of the armies for the Civil War?)

It’s not too surprising, then, to learn that there’s a Civil War survivor a few miles from our house in Los Angeles: the Drum Barracks, the last remaining Civil War structure in Los Angeles, originally part of Camp Drum.

A man named Phineas Banning was a co-founder of the city of Wilmington, which occupies the north end of the Port of Los Angeles. Highly successful as an entrepreneur, Banning was an important figure in Los Angeles history, and had a pivotal role in establishing the Port of Los Angeles as a major force in shipping (now one of the world’s busiest ports).

War in California

With the outbreak of the Civil War, Unionist like Banning were concerned that the strong degree of support for the Confederacy in southern California could lead to the creation of a strategically powerful base of operations from the West. Banning and another prominent local donated land to the Union, which built Camp Drum.

Drum Barracks Brad Nixon 8341 680

The camp would eventually house about 7,000 troops. A couple thousand of these soldiers did march out of Wilmington to maintain control of the New Mexico Territory, which included present day Arizona, from the Confederacy at the battle of Picacho Pass, near Tucson, the westernmost battle of the war.

Today, the former officers’ barracks is all that remains of Camp Drum, but it’s in fine shape. It’s located in a mostly residential neighborhood not far from downtown Wilmington.

Drum Barracks Brad Nixon 8333 680

Now a Civil War museum, the barracks is worth a visit for a glimpse at the world of the 1860s. It may only be a curiosity for residents of Virginia or Tennessee, who can’t swing a cat without hitting a Civil War landmark (although there are serious penalties for striking a Confederate landmark with a feline, an act described in local ordinances as cataclysm).

Brad and Dad, Front of Barracks

One photo from about 1863, soon after Camp Drum was established, shows a camel hitched outside a building at the camp. The Army had imported camels from Africa as an experimental source of pack animals to serve in the arid southwest, the  Camel Corps. A few dozen of them were stationed to installations in California, eventually based at Camp Drum.

US Camel Corp 75085347 680

There was, by the way, a more western Civil War fort, out on Santa Catalina Island. It was built as a deterrent against the risk of Confederate sponsored privateers that might threaten the shipping in and out of the mainland port. An original building still exists, occupied today by a yacht club.

Nearby: The Banning Museum

Just a few blocks away from Drum Barracks is the Banning family mansion, which is also a museum worth visiting in its own right. The government eventually returned the donated land to Banning once the fort was decommissioned, and he and his family continued to prosper.

CLICK HERE to access the Wikipedia entry on the Drum Barracks.

CLICK HERE to access the Drum Barracks official site.

© Brad Nixon 2010, revised 2020. One photo © M. Vincent 2010. Used by kind permission.


  1. Great article, Brad. Your reference to WW I reminded me of an article I wrote a few years ago about how artists in the early 20th century reacted to the horrors of WW I, both during the carnage and after. WW I was the catalyst for the Dada “movement.” (Dada was sometimes called a ‘movement’ for convenience. But Dada was intentionally never an organized group, as their entire raison d’être was to illustrate the irrationality and utter failure of Western Civilization — and its values — in inflicting such an insane horror upon millions.)

    In my article, as in yours, I referenced the Battle of the Somme, infamous for causing the greatest number of military casualties suffered in a single day by one side, 58,000, a record that still stands, despite the meterioric rise of lethality of military technology 20+ years later in WW II.


  2. Today there is another Fort Drum in upstate New York, home to the Army 10th Mountain Division.

    I don’t know much about art, but had read that the Dadaists kicked Salvadore Dali out of their group. Maybe that was as organized as they got? Probably just as likely that Dali made this up as part of his public image!


    • Well, you’ve caused me to check my facts. The California establishment was actually Camp Drum, named after R.C. Drum, Asst. Adjutant General of the Army’s Department of the Pacific. Fort Drum, N.Y, was named after Lt. Gen. Hugh A. Drum, who commanded the First Army in WWII. I need to make some corrections to my article!


    • Robert, I think you might be right about Dali making that up to suit his public image, as he was a notorious publicity seeker in ways that went far beyond his art. Dali was one of the “Surrealists” which was probably a more organized group than the Dadaists.

      However, there is one famous “expulsion” incident involving Dadaist Marcel Duchamp. There was to be an art expo in NY in the 1920’s I believe that had no criteria or standards for submittal of artworks. Duchamp submitted a urinal as his ‘sculpture’ which he signed “R. Mutt.” The NY Dada expo comittee rejected his entry. So, Duchamp “resigned” from the Dada “group” such as it was in NY. I do believe that the NY Dadaists were more of a cohesive group than those in Europe.

      Dadaism eventually ran out of steam in the 1920’s, as it was essentially “anti-everything,” and it’s tough to make art from such a premise, or at least art that anyone will pay attention to after years of so negative a thematic base. As Dadaism sprang from the devastation of WW I, after the Great War ended, people wanted to move on from its horrors and so lost interest in Dadaism. Surrealism eventually supplanted Dadaism in the late 1920’s-early 1930’s, and some early Dadaists became a part of Surrealism.


  3. And here once again is proof that the technology of today helps in the sharing of knowledge. We both learned something today, eh, Brad?!! Great article!

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thank you, GP. Yes, I learned quite a bit. Technology’s one thing, but your assiduous sharing of what you know is an example of how to put it to work.

      Liked by 1 person

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